A sun tanner is a device or a product utilized to tan or to darken the skin color. The process is normally as a consequence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial sources. Tanning beds are the major artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation used. This effect can also result from reflected light, chemical products, or windburn.
Deliberate tanning is attained by regular sun bathing whilst casual unintended exposure to sunbeams may have some benefits as well as undesirable effects. Benefits comprise vitamin D synthesis under the skin surface. Excessive exposure causes possible early aging, sunburns, depressed immune system function, and likely skin cancer. Sunscreens are utilized to avoid sunburn effect on parts of skin surface open to the natural sun or sun tanner equipment. Certain oils may also accelerate the tanning procedure.
Tanning process varies among individuals, with some people changing skin color more easily and fast than others. This is due to differences in natural skin color and skin type. These two factors are a result of genetics.
Cells called melanocytes, which lie in the deepest layer of the skin produce melanin. This process is known as melanogenesis. Melanocytes create two forms of melanin, that is eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin has a dark brown color while pheomelanin is red. The work of melanin is protecting internal body organs through absorption of solar energy. Solar beams cause indirect or direct damage to DNA, which needs to be corrected by the body system through secretion of melanin.
With increased secretion of melanin, skin color becomes darker, although the UV-B might cause sunburn. This tanning effect can also be attained by use of artificial UV tanners. The artificial sun tanner delivers either UV-B, UV-A, or both. Creation of a tan by exposure to UV occurs through two different mechanisms. To begin with, UV-A beams create oxidative stress, which in turn oxidizes the already available melanin. Once oxidized, melanin turns it color to dark brown.
The radiations produced by a sun tanner also redistributes melanin from its storage location, but its initial amount remains the same. The second procedure is stimulated primarily by UVB radiation. The rate of melanogenesis increases leading to more melanin. This entire reaction starts due to direct photo-damage caused by UV beams. Melanogenesis process delays tanning, which becomes noticeable after seventy two hours after the first exposure. The tan created by increased melanogenesis stays longer than that caused by oxidation reaction. It guards against skin damages in a better way than simple aesthetic function offered by UV-A beams.
The sun tanner used to generate artificial ultraviolet radiation is shaped like a casket. A person lies inside the sun tanner and beams of light are radiated on their body. There is a given period of time that one needs to last inside the sun tanner. Beyond that time, the rays become excessively harmful. The sun tanner has a lead, on which the lights are placed.
A sun tanner is a pricey device depending on the version one needs to obtain. The difference might however not be so significant since they all attain same effects and results. One should always compare costs among producers before purchasing one. A Sun tanner can be made in various designs and sizes.